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Open Cloze - (C1) Advanced Certificate of English

For questions 1-8, read the text below and think of the word which best fits each gap. Use only one word in each gap. There is an example at the beginning (0).

Optimism

We think of ourselves as rational creatures and yet (0) IN the main we expect things to turn (1) ............ better that they end up being and underestimate the likelihood of negative events. Indeed, a tendency to look on the bright side may be (2) ............ closely linked with human survival that evolution must have made us that way. Research findings show that optimists live longer and healthier, (3) ............ if their hopes are irrational and result (4) ............ unwanted outcomes. In order to reach our goals we have to visualize success. However, some people argue that ceaseless optimism makes for a greater shock when things (5) ............ wrong and that optimists need constant reassurance, which can increase anxiety. (6) ............ than rejecting uncertainty and insecurity, they say it’s better to imagine the worst. If you think you might lose something, you start to appreciate its value. It (7) ............ the Stoics of Ancient Greece who believed that we should not avoid negative emotions. To them, the ideal state of mind was (8) ............ of complete acceptance of any emotions, positive or negative.

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