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Multiple Choice - (C2) Certificate of Proficiency in English

For Questions 1-8, read the text below and decide which answer (A, B, C or D) best fits each gap. There is an example at the beginning (0).

A brave rider

The bicycle (0) OF the late 19th century (1) ............ a much closer resemblance to a modern bike than its predecessors. The 'Penny Farthing', which gained its name due to its giant front wheel, its rather tiny rear wheel, and their comparative sizes being similar to the penny and farthing coins in the UK at the time, was for all (2) ............ and purposes a vehicle designed for racing. A brave rider would (3) ............ at the top of the 150cm-high front wheel. This device had in turn (4) ............ Pierre Lallemont's 'Velocipede', a vehicle that featured a rotary crank mechanism to turn the wheels, according to his American patent in 1866. However, it still lacked a chain drive and a 'true' gearing system, and, rather worryingly, any kind of brake. (5) ............ the Penny Farthing had been ridden almost exclusively by daring young men, the safety bike could be used by anyone and quite a scandal was (6) ............ up by one newspaper around the time of the bike's commercial launch when it reported on young women riding the bikes, unchaperoned, around the city of New York. What is more - these trailblazing ladies had also dared to wear trousers - a (7) ............ outrage in some parts of society. In fact, Susan B. Antony, a 19th-century women's activist, claimed that bicycling had done more to emancipate women than any one thing in the world. The bicycle has continued to be an understated symbol of innovation and evolution, if nothing else (8) ............ the way to ease of movement for many, and in an undoubtedly environmentally friendly way.

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