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Multiple Choice - (C2) Certificate of Proficiency in English

For Questions 1-8, read the text below and decide which answer (A, B, C or D) best fits each gap. There is an example at the beginning (0).

Spices

The history (0) OF spices is entwined (1) ............ exploration, adventure, religious missions, commerce, and conquest. Treasured like gold and (2) ............ stones, spices have had enormous commercial value in ancient and medieval times. Most spices and flavourings had origins in the tropics or subtropics. They were much (3) ............ after in the West, and the quest for spices tremendously changed the (4) ............ of history. The East is the birthplace of most popular spices and flavourings. India, Southeast Asia, and China have given us anise, basil, cinnamon, clove, garlic, ginger, and turmeric. Other spices, such as bay leaf, sage, sesame, and thyme came from the Middle East, North Africa, and other parts of the Mediterranean. The colder regions of Europe have provided us with juniper and horseradish, (5) ............ the Americas gave us chile peppers, chocolate, and sassafras. Ancient civilizations, such as Indians, Middle Easterners, Chinese, Aztecs, and Incas, have used spices since time (6) ............. As with modern civilizations, these cultures spiced foods to enhance their palatability and to create different flavour profiles. In addition, spices were used to preserve meats or fish, to disguise (7) ............ foods and (8) ............ disagreeable odours, and even to create cosmetics and perfumes.

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